The JEM concerning Job insecurity is a subpart of the JEM concerning Psychosocial factors with the JEM name BBHJEM.

This JEM was constructed using data from “The Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study” collected by the Danish National Research Centre for the working environment in 2012. For each exposure we include a continuous JEM, giving the mean level of this exposure in each job group, and a dichotomous JEM, giving the risk of high exposure within the group.

There are a number of variables indicating the number of participants within the group that the JEM was estimated from – this is minimum 10 for total number of participants, but for some JEMS fewer persons responded to that specific item, so the number could be down to a minimum of 8.

We used the most detailed information available (6 digits). If there were less than 10 participants in a group, this group was combined with those respondents for whom 1 less digit of DISCO was available. All estimates were generated sex-specifically, so that the minimum number of respondents within each group was amongst male or female respondents respectively.

If we could not classify participants at the three-digit level in a group of at least 10 participants using the approach described, these participants were excluded. For all participants with a six-digit disco code, the last digit in the code was 0. Consequently, there was no difference between six- and five-level codes and five-level codes were not included in the procedure.

Reference: Madsen IEH, Gupta N, Budtz-Jørgensen E, et al. Physical work demands and psychosocial working conditions as predictors of musculoskeletal pain: a cohort study comparing self-reported and job exposure matrix measurements. Occup Environ Med 2018; 75: 752-8.

Contact information: Ida E. H. Madsen, ; Reiner Rugulies, ; Andreas Holtermann, (all affiliated at the National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark)

Access: To obtain access to data follow the application procedure on this site. You will find an overview of the access posibilies to the JEM  here Hent dokument.


Quantitative demands, emotional demands, decision authority, job insecurity, violence, and job strain.


The JEM was developed based on a representative sample of the Danish workforce.

Job title and industry classification system: 

The JEM is available in both the DISCO-88 and DISCO-08 systems.

Calendar period:  

The data used to generate the JEM was collected in 2012. We are currently working on developing other JEMs based on earlier data, classified according to DISCO-88.

Measures of exposure:

Quantitative demands is a scale-score ranging from 1 to 5 as a mean of five items each scored 1-5. Higher score indicates higher demands. The dichotomization is done at the 90-percentile. Items are: Do you have time enough for your work tasks? Do you have deadlines that are difficult to keep? Do you get unexpected work tasks that put you under time pressure? Are you available outside normal working hours? Do you have to work overtime?

Emotional demands is a scale-score ranging from 1 to 5 as a mean of two items each scored 1-5. Higher score indicates higher demands. The dichotomization is done at the 90-percentile. Items are: Do you get emotionally involved in your work? Do you have to deal with the problems of e.g. clients, patients or students in your work (not problems of your colleagues)?

Decision authority is a scale-score ranging from 1 to 5 as a mean of two items each scored 1-5. Higher score indicates higher decision authority. The dichotomization is done at the 10-percentile. Items are: Can you influence how you solve your work tasks? Can you influence when you solve your work tasks?

Job insecurity is a single item scored 1-5, higher score indicates higher job insecurity: Are you worried about becoming unemployed?

Violence is a probability based exposure within past 12 months from a single item: Have you within the past 12 months been exposed to physical violence at your workplace? (yes/no).

Job strain is the combination of both High Quantitative demands and Low Decision authority, where Quantitative demands and Decision authority are dichotomized based on sex-specific median splits.

For dichotomous exposures the JEM includes: predicted probability of exposure according to job group, sex and age. Estimates were generated using a logit model with disco-group and age (spline) as predictors of exposure.

For continuous exposures the JEM includes: Mean level of exposure and standard deviation of the mean, according to job group, sex and age. Estimates were generated in a random intercept multilevel model using BLUP estimators.

Demographic dimensions:

Estimates were generated separately for men and women, and age was modelled as a spline according to the sex-specific quartiles of the age-distribution in the population.